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In the late 20th century, artificial nails for women became widely popular. The artificial nails are not a replacement, but an extension for natural nails. There are two main approaches to creating artificial nails—tips and forms. Tips are made of lightweight plastic plates that are "nail" shaped. They are glued on the end of the natural nail and are blended into the existing natural nail using an emory board. Forms are fit under the nail and then an artificial nail is molded out of acrylic and the form is removed and then properly shaped and buffed to a shine. There are several popular techniques that can be used to create longer more perfect looking nail enhancements. One popular material commonly called "acrylics" is a mixture of a polymer powder and a liquid monomer (e.g.ethylmethacrylate). The mixture starts to harden in 30–40 seconds after application and continues to cure to final hardness typically for more than an hour. Powder and liquid acrylics can be removed in 20 minutes using a variety of solvents (usually acetone is used). Another material, commonly called "UV gel", (in correct chemical terms a polymer resin) hardens under ultraviolet light. Depending on brand these can show a broader variety of quality and properties (flexibility, stength, etc.) but may be but more expensive. They generally cannot be removed by organic solvents, but only be removed by filing (or left to grow out with the natural nail). Another popular alternative to acrylic or gel preparations are Fiberglass or Silk wraps. They are done by cutting pieces of actual fiberglass or silk fabric to fit on the surface of the nail or tip and then it is sealed down with a resin or glue. These are a possible alternative for those who are allergic to chemicals used in the acrylic or gel process. Other materials can be used, as well as combinations of them. There are also temporary, cheaper flexible tips that can be quickly glued at home without help from a professional. Acrylic nail powders are available in a variety of colours and can use "special effects" such as contours, sparkles and the very popular "French" (pink and white appearance).
In 2003 the first ink nail printer, NailJet Pro, was released. It allowed individuals to print custom hi-resolution colour images on their nails. In some parts of Asia, similar but larger nail-art printers have been set up near bookstores and other popular destinations of young people. They work much like picture-taking booths.
These fashion trends are not without risks, as residues of acrylic resins have been known to lead to redness, swelling, pain and even severe allergic reactions. The nail can separate from the nail bed, and if the nail root becomes damaged, the replacement can be permanently deformed. As well, nail glue is poisonous if accidentally swallowed and most nail polishes and removers contain toxic formaldehyde or acetone.
Hot oil manicure
A hot oil manicure is a specific type of manicure that cleans the cuticles and softens them with oil. This style of manicure is one that is typically given to men.
The Standard Manicure Process
A manicurist prepares for a customer by ensuring that the working area and tools are sanitized and conveniently located, and by making sure that there is proper lighting.